Current status and new approaches in prostate cancer diagnosis

Original Article, Pol J Public Health 2018;128(4): 166-169

  Maria Pyda-Karwicka1,2, Malwina Karwicka1, Janusz Kopczyński2, Magdalena Orłowska3,
Mariusz Krata4, Andrzej Skrzyński5, Jolanta Masiak6, Yee Kong Chow7, Agnieszka Pedrycz8

1 School of Medicine, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Poland
2 Holycross Cancer Center Kielce, Poland
3 International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland
4 Internal Medicine Ward, Independent Public Healthcare Centre in Szczebrzeszyn, Poland
5 Private Practice in Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Łuków, Poland
6 Neurophysiological Independent Unit, Chair of Psychiatry, I Faculty of Medicine with Dentistry Division, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
7 Sanks Karasjok, Norway
8 Chair and Department of Histology and Embryology with Experimental Cytology Unit, I Faculty of Medicine with Dentistry Division, Medical University of Lublin, Poland

DOI: 10.2478/pjph-2018-0033

© 2018 Medical University of Lublin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonComercial-No Derivs licence (


Prostate adenocarcinoma, remaining among top most common cancers, is a heterogeneous group of tumors with a diverse morphological structure. Basing on the histological architecture of cancer tissue, individual cases can be classified into different therapeutic groups. Current diagnosis of prostate cancer brings many challenges. The major problem is the lack of effective and accessible diagnostic methods that would eliminate incidences of overdiagnosis and prevent unnecessary treatments of many patients. There are many efforts to determine favorable and unfavorable molecular prognostic factors. The basic marker currently used in this field is prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Increased level of PSA may suggest the presence of prostate cancer although its level is not specific for the disease and can be elevated also in certain benign hyperplastic or inflammatory conditions as well as after irritation or rectal examination. Clinical symptoms such as dysuria or hematuria are often uncharacteristic and benign prostatic diseases which cannot be confirmed on the basis of physical examination alone. Also, we often deal with the situation of false negative results of prostate needle biopsy, which require many tests to determine the final correct diagnosis. Moreover, prostate cancer can also be present in patients with non- elevated serum PSA level. Due to such difficulties, the search for new molecular markers that could be used for diagnostic purposes is underway. Evaluation of survivin level in prostate cancer tissue may serve as a new diagnostic indicator of prostate cancer progression. Other useful molecular biomarkers with good potential in prostate cancer diagnosis are AMACR (Alpha Methyl Acyl Coenzyme A Racemase), p-63 or Ki-67 or microRNAs present in body fluids.

Keywords: prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen, new diagnostic methods, survivin.

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