Use of common stimulants and awake bruxism – a survey study

Original Article, Pol J Public Health 2016;126(3); 130-133

Marcin Berger1, Monika Litko1, Michał Ginszt2, Hassan Alharby3,
Jacek Szkutnik1, Piotr Majcher2, Jolanta Szymańska4

1 Department of Functional Masticatory Disorders, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
2 Chair and Department of Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy and Balneotherapy, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
3 Medical Students’ Research Association, Department of Functional Masticatory Disorders, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
4 Chair and Department of Paedodontics, Medical University of Lublin, Poland

DOI: 10.1515/pjph-2016-0027



Introduction. Bruxism, the most detrimental parafunctional activity of the masticatory system can cause various temporomandibular joint disorders, as well as masticatory muscle disorders. It is important to identify factors aggravating bruxism, which can be easily eliminated and ease control of the disorder.
Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between the use of common stimulants – nicotine, caffeine and self-reports of awake bruxism.
Material and methods. 113 dental students (83 females, 30 males) aged 21-29 were examined. In order to diagnose awake bruxism subjects were asked questions from the Oral Behaviors Checklist. Patients were also asked about daily/weekly frequency of cigarette smoking and coffee as well as caffeine-containing beverages consumption.
Results. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with self-reported awake bruxism. There was no link found between caffeine consumption and parafunctional activities.
Conclusion. Cigarette smoking, but not caffeine consumption, may be a risk factor for awake bruxism. However, this association should be further assessed in the presence of confounding factors, such as psychological distress.


bruxism, tobacco smoking, caffeine.


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