Obstructive sleep apnea

Reviev Article, Zdr Publ 2012;122(4): 430-433

MAGDALENA DOBROWOLSKA-ZARZYCKA1, JOLANTA SZYMAŃSKA2

1 Katedra i Zakład Ortopedii Szczękowej, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie

2 Katedra i Zakład Stomatologii Wieku Rozwojowego, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease characterized by the occurrence of at least five 10-second pauses in breathing (apnea) or abnormally low breathing events (hypopnea) accompanied with a decrease in blood oxygen saturation by 2-4% per hour of sleep, despite continued, or even intensified, movements of respiratory muscles.
OSA is diagnosed in 4% of men and 2% of women who develop the disease later, usually after the menopause. The severity of the disease is assessed with Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) indicating the average number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. OBS is a multicausal disease. The reported risk factors include: obesity, anatomical and post-inflammatory abnormalities in the structure of upper respiratory tract, inappropriate sleep hygiene, maxillary and mandibular deficiencies. The disease may lead to numerous life-threatening complications.
Maintaining a correct body mass, good sleep hygiene, rational use of hypnotic drugs and appropriate surgical-orthodontic treatment of patients with malocclusions and anatomic craniofacial anomalies are the basic principles of preventing OBS in patients prone to this disease.

Keywords

obstructive sleep apnea, classification, prevalence, risk

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